Author Archives: Michael Gakuran

Internalist views

Internalist views could be said to lead to considering normativity as an issue in Epistemology. That is, what it is we ‘should’ or ‘ought’ to believe in various situations such as defining justification or knowledge. For example, whether we should deny situations like the Evil Demon one below, simply because we have to grant ourselves […]
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Externalist views

We have our basic Justified True Belief (JTB) account of knowledge. Subject (S) knows something (p) iff: (P1) p is true (P2) S believes that p (P3) S is justified in believing that p.
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Externalism vs Internalism

Tricky, tricky. What a mess of a debate this is. I’ll give it my best shot to clarify. First of all, we need to be aware of the distinctions between Externalism about Knowledge (KE) and Internalism about Knowledge (KI). And also, the difference between Externalism about Justification (JE) and Internalism about Justification (JI).
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Nozick’s truth-tracking

Okay! Brace yourselves for a tricky piece of work. (Well, it was tricky for me…) I’ll do my best to give an accurate summary of Robert Nozick’s counterfactual account of knowledge, but there may be some slight errors. Basically, Nozick is suggesting that knowledge is belief that tracks the truth. Recall our JTB account of […]
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Gettier Cases

Gettier cases! Cases of our beloved Justified True Belief (JTB) account of knowledge gone wrong! Edmund Gettier famously gave several short examples of cases where I could have a true belief that was justified – all 3 of our conditions for knowledge – yet not actually know. How could this be!? Take a gander at […]
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Justified True Belief

As we saw last time, the standard Closure Argument for knowledge seems to hold some problems. Indeed, it even gives fuel to the skeptic in her attempts to shake us up in her claim that we can’t know a great many of the things we think we do.
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Closure Argument

Okay! Back into Philosophy again. The focus over the next few days will be Epistemology (the theory of knowledge). I wrote a little about the origins of modern Epistemology some time ago. Remember Descartes and his Evil Demons? Go and read it for a light introduction to some of the worries we have with regard […]
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Left-brain Right-brain

Which side of your brain is the dominant side? I’m sure you’ve heard this question before or taken some sort of psychological test that is supposed to show it. I certainly have, but I’ve never seen one quite as amazing as this! Take a look at the picture below and tell me which way it’s […]
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